Wednesday, June 29, 2016

Blue Origin Breaks Ground On Florida Rocket Facility

Artist concept of Blue Origin Rocket Factory In Florida

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Florida - Blue Origin broke ground on its 750,000-square-foot rocket factory at Exploration Park just south of Kennedy Space Center in Florida, CEO Jeff Bezos announced on Tuesday.




The site will eventually serve as launch, manufacturing and support facilities for Blue Origin's Orbital Launch Vehicle (OLV) program that will launch from Space Complex 36 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station later this decade.

In partnership with United Launch Alliance, Blue Origin’s BE-4 rocket engine is slated to replace the Russian-made RD-180 engine by 2019.

Dubbed by Bezos as "a 21st century production facility where we’ll focus on manufacturing our reusable fleet of orbital launchers and readying them for flight again and again," the  project will create 330 new jobs and a capital investment of $200 million on Florida's Space Coast over the next five years.

Land cleared on Merritt Island for Blue Origin faclity

Bulldozers clear land on Merritt Island for Blue Origin faclity

Photo credits: Blue Origin

VIDEO: NASA Fires Solid Propellant Booster For Most Powerful Rocket In The World


PROMONTORY, Utah - A solid propellant booster for the most powerful rocket in the world, NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS), was successfully fired on Tuesday for its second qualification ground test at Orbital ATK's test facilities in Promontory, Utah.

This was the last full-scale test for the booster before SLS’s first uncrewed test flight with NASA’s Orion spacecraft at Kennedy Space Center in Florida in late 2018.




“This final qualification test of the booster system shows real progress in the development of the Space Launch System,” said William Gerstenmaier, associate administrator for the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “Seeing this test today, and experiencing the sound and feel of approximately 3.6 million pounds of thrust, helps us appreciate the progress we’re making to advance human exploration and open new frontiers for science and technology missions in deep space.”

The booster was tested at a cold motor conditioning target of 40 degrees Fahrenheit – the colder end of its accepted propellant temperature range. When ignited, temperatures inside the booster reached nearly 6,000 degrees. The two-minute, full-duration ground qualification test provided NASA with critical data on 82 qualification objectives that will support certification of the booster for flight. Engineers now will evaluate these data, captured by more than 530 instrumentation channels on the booster.


When completed, two five-segment boosters and four RS-25 main engines will be capable of sending humans to deep space destinations such as an asteroid and eventually Mars.  

The initial 77-ton (70-metric-ton) SLS configuration will use two 5-segment solid rocket boosters similar to the boosters that helped power the space shuttle to orbit. The next planned upgrade of SLS will use a powerful exploration upper stage for more ambitious missions, with a 105-metric-ton (115-ton) lift capacity. In each configuration, SLS will continue to use the same core stage and four RS-25 engines.


ABOVE PHOTO: The second and final qualification motor (QM-2) test for the Space Launch System’s booster is seen, Tuesday, June 28, 2016, at Orbital ATK Propulsion System's (SLS) test facilities in Promontory, Utah. During the SLS flight the boosters will provide more than 75 percent of the thrust needed to escape the gravitational pull of the Earth, the first step on NASA’s Journey to Mars. Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls.

Friday, June 24, 2016

WATCH LIVE: Atlas V Rocket Launch From Cape Canaveral Set For June 24, 2016


CAPE CANAVERAL, Florida -- Watch the Atlas V rocket launch from Cape Canaveral, Florida scheduled for Friday, June 24, 2016 live online. The launch window opens at 10:30 a.m. and closes 11:14 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time. The live broadcast will begin at 10:10 a.m. EDT.



Launch Weather 80% 'GO'

According to the latest weather forecast from the United States Air Force 45th Weather Squadron, there is an 80% percent chance overall of acceptable weather conditions for Friday's launch.  The primary weather concern for launch is cumulus clouds. 

MISSION PAYLOAD:

The Atlas V's payload is a U.S. Navy communications satellite dubbed MUOS, an acronym for Mobile User Objective System. The fifth (MUOS-5) satellite  joins four MUOS satellites already on orbit and four operational ground stations, providing near-global coverage including communications deep into polar regions. 

More than 55,000 currently fielded radio terminals can be upgraded to be MUOS-compatible, with many of them requiring just a software upgrade. Users with operational MUOS terminals can seamlessly connect beyond line-of-sight around the world and into the Global Information Grid. MUOS’ new commercial, cellular-based capabilities include simultaneous, crystal-clear voice, video and mission data, over a secure high-speed Internet Protocol-based system. 

“Like its predecessors, MUOS-5 has two payloads to support both these new Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) waveform capabilities, as well as the legacy Ultra High Frequency (UHF) satellite system, used by many mobile forces today,” said Mark Woempner, program director of Lockheed Martin’s Narrowband Communications mission area. “On orbit, MUOS-5 will augment the constellation as a WCDMA spare, while actively supporting the legacy UHF system.”

Once fully operational, MUOS will provide users with 16 times more communications capacity than the legacy system it will eventually replace. 

Photo and live broadcast video credit: ULA

Tuesday, June 21, 2016

Weather 80% 'GO' For Atlas V Rocket Launch From Cape Canaveral

(MUOS-5) satellite
The fifth Mobile User Objective System (MUOS) satellite built by Lockheed Martin for the U.S. Navy was encapsulated in its protective launch vehicle fairing on June 4, 2016.  It is scheduled to launch June 24, 2016 aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Cape Canaveral, Florida.

CAPE CANAVERAL, Florida -- The U.S. Navy and Lockheed Martin are scheduled to launch the MUOS-5 military communications satellite aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V 551 configuration rocket on Friday, June 24, 2016, from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.  


The launch window opens at 10:30 a.m. and closes 11:14 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time.


Launch Weather 80% 'GO'

According to the latest weather forecast from the United States Air Force 45th Weather Squadron, there is an 80% percent chance overall of acceptable weather conditions for Friday's launch.  The primary weather concern for launch is cumulus clouds. 

MISSION PAYLOAD:

The Atlas V's payload is a U.S. Navy communications satellite dubbed MUOS, an acronym for Mobile User Objective System. The fifth (MUOS-5) satellite  joins four MUOS satellites already on orbit and four operational ground stations, providing near-global coverage including communications deep into polar regions. 

More than 55,000 currently fielded radio terminals can be upgraded to be MUOS-compatible, with many of them requiring just a software upgrade. Users with operational MUOS terminals can seamlessly connect beyond line-of-sight around the world and into the Global Information Grid. MUOS’ new commercial, cellular-based capabilities include simultaneous, crystal-clear voice, video and mission data, over a secure high-speed Internet Protocol-based system. 

“Like its predecessors, MUOS-5 has two payloads to support both these new Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) waveform capabilities, as well as the legacy Ultra High Frequency (UHF) satellite system, used by many mobile forces today,” said Mark Woempner, program director of Lockheed Martin’s Narrowband Communications mission area. “On orbit, MUOS-5 will augment the constellation as a WCDMA spare, while actively supporting the legacy UHF system.”

Once fully operational, MUOS will provide users with 16 times more communications capacity than the legacy system it will eventually replace. 

Photo and live broadcast video credit: ULA

VIDEO: Strawberry Full Moon Rises During Summer Solstice 2016

Strawberry Moon On Summer Solstice 2016

CAPE CANAVERAL, Florida -  A Strawberry Full Moon occurred during the Summer Solstice on June 20, 2016 - a nearly once-in-a-lifetime event that hasn't happened since 1967. A Full Moon during Summer Solstice won't happen again until 2062.

The Strawberry Moon rose over the Atlantic Ocean on Florida's east coast around 8:34 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time on Monday, June 20, 2016.


Why is this Full Moon called a Strawberry Moon?

According to Native American folklore, a full moon in June is called a Strawberry Moon because the short season for harvesting strawberries comes during that summer month. Other names for the first full moon is June are Rose Moon and Flower Moon.

Are Strawberry Moons red or pink in color?

Sometimes. But Strawberry Moons are not necessarily red or pink in color just because they occur in June.  Like any full moon, the moon can appear reddish-pink which is caused by atmospheric conditions on Earth or a partial lunar eclipse. Strawberry Moons can also appear brown-red in color during a total lunar eclipse.

What is the Summer Solstice?

The Summer Solstice is the shortest night and longest day of the year on Earth's northern hemisphere for locations like Melbourne, Florida, but the reverse in the southern hemisphere for locations like Melbourne, Australia. During the Summer Solstice, the Sun sits above the Tropic of Cancer, spreading more sunlight in the north and turning the tables on the south.


A Summer Solstice can occur on June 20, 21, or 22, depending on calendar events such as leap year and when the Solstice begins relative to Coordinated Universal Time.



Photo and video credit: Brevard Times

Monday, June 20, 2016

'Strawberry' Full Moon Tonight On Summer Solstice 2016: Hasn't Happened Since 1967

Strawberry' Full Moon Tonight During Summer Solstice 2016

CAPE CANAVERAL, Florida -- There will be a Full Moon tonight, Monday, June 20, 2016. But not just any Full Moon. This Full Moon is a Strawberry Moon that also happens to occur during the Summer Solstice - an event that has not occurred since 1967 and will not occur again until 2062.

Tonight's Strawberry Moon begins with a moonrise over the Atlantic Ocean on Florida's east coast around 8:34 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time on June 20, 2016 (with plus or minus a few minutes depending on your exact location along Florida's east coast). 

The moon will be at its fullest (99.8% full) the following morning at 1:12 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time on Tuesday, June 21, 2016.  The Strawberry Moon will set at 7:33 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time on Tuesday. 

Why is this Full Moon called a Strawberry Moon?




According to Native American folklore, a full moon in June is called a Strawberry Moon because the short season for harvesting strawberries comes during that summer month. Other names for the first full moon is June are Rose Moon and Flower Moon.

Are Strawberry Moons red or pink in color?

Sometimes. But Strawberry Moons are not necessarily red or pink in color just because they occur in June.  Like any full moon, the moon can appear reddish-pink which is caused by atmospheric conditions on Earth or a partial lunar eclipse. Strawberry Moons can also appear brown-red in color during a total lunar eclipse.  More than likely, the Full Moon on June 20, 2016 will appear the usual pearly-gray to most locations on Earth. 

What is the Summer Solstice?

The Summer Solstice is the shortest night and longest day of the year on Earth's northern hemisphere for locations like Melbourne, Florida, but the reverse in the southern hemisphere for locations like Melbourne, Australia. During the Summer Solstice, the Sun sits above the Tropic of Cancer, spreading more sunlight in the north and turning the tables on the south.

However, it is not the Sun that is moving north or south through the seasons, but a change in the orientation and angles between the Earth and its nearest star. The axis of the Earth is tilted 23.5 degrees relative to the Sun and the ecliptic plane. The axis is tilted away from the Sun at the December solstice and toward the Sun at the June solstice, spreading more and less light on each hemisphere. At the equinoxes, the tilt is at a right angle to the Sun and the light is spread evenly.

A Summer Solstice can occur on June 20, 21, or 22, depending on calendar events such as leap year and when the Solstice begins relative to Coordinated Universal Time.

In 2016, the Summer Solstice, will occur on Monday, June 20, 2016 at 12:38 Eastern Daylight Time (22:34 Universal Time), according to the U.S. Naval Observatory.

Cultural Events During Summer Solstice

Several celebrations going back to primitive times center around the Summer Solstice because the apparent change in location of the Sun and Moon marks important dates for hunting and farming as evidenced by the astronomic architectural designs at Stonehenge in England and Mayan and Aztec pyramids in Central and South America. In modern times, International Surfing Day - a very sunny sport - is celebrated on Summer Solstice.

How can the Summer Solstice be the First Day of Summer and Midsummer at the same time? 

The difference lies in the definitions created by culture, agriculture and astronomy. According to NASA and astronomical institutions, June 20th marks the beginning of Summer in the Northern Hemisphere and the beginning of winter in the Southern Hemisphere in 2016.   

The official start and end of summer can vary by country - not because summer starts a week or so earlier in one country than another in the same hemisphere, but because the recognition of the start of summer is often influenced by historical or cultural reasons particular to that country.  Most countries recognize summer as starting on dates ranging in May and ending sometime in August. 

Although the June Solstice marks the beginning of Northern summer, it is often called Midsummer. In traditional Gaelic culture, the Summer Solstice represented the mid-point between the commencement of the Celtic Summer on May 1 and autumn on August 1.     

But I thought June, July and August were the Summer months?

They can be if your culture or country recognizes those months as summer.  In the U.S., those months have become associated with summer because school vacation (a.k.a Summer Break) has traditionally taken place during those months.   But the choice of those months were influenced by the agriculture harvest seasons to allow children to help on the family farm and not due to the official beginning and end of the summer season.

Why is there a lag time between the hottest days of Summer and the Solstice?  


Blame the oceans, which heat up and cool down only slowly.   By June 20 they are still cool from the winter time, and that delays the peak heat by about a month and a half.  Similarly, in December the water still holds warmth from the Summer, and the coldest days are still (on the average - not always) a month and a half ahead.

The 2016 Summer Solstice marks the highest exposure of the northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans to the Sun's heating radiation.  The rise in ocean temperatures then provides the energy necessary to produce stronger hurricanes later in the year, usually around September.

Image credit: NASA (red added by Brevard Times)

Summer Solstice: The First Day of Summer And Longest Day Of The Year

Summer Solstice at Stonehenge

The First Day of Summer and the longest day of the the year, known as the Summer Solstice, will occur on Monday, June 20, 2016 at 12:38 Eastern Daylight Time (22:34 Universal Time), according to the U.S. Naval Observatory.

A Summer Solstice can occur on June 20, 21, or 22, depending on calendar events such as leap year and when the Solstice begins relative to Coordinated Universal Time.

What is the Summer Solstice?

The Summer Solstice is the shortest night and longest day of the year on Earth's northern hemisphere for locations like Melbourne, Florida, but the reverse in the southern hemisphere for locations like Melbourne, Australia. During the Summer Solstice, the Sun sits above the Tropic of Cancer, spreading more sunlight in the north and turning the tables on the south.  


Several celebrations going back to primitive times center around the Summer Solstice because the apparent change in location of the Sun and Moon marks important dates for hunting and farming as evidenced by the astronomic architectural designs at Stonehenge in England and Mayan and Aztec pyramids in Central and South America. 

However, it is not the Sun that is moving north or south through the seasons, but a change in the orientation and angles between the Earth and its nearest star. The axis of the Earth is tilted 23.5 degrees relative to the Sun and the ecliptic plane. The axis is tilted away from the Sun at the December solstice and toward the Sun at the June solstice, spreading more and less light on each hemisphere. At the equinoxes, the tilt is at a right angle to the Sun and the light is spread evenly.

How can the Summer Solstice be the First Day of Summer and Midsummer at the same time? 

The difference lies in the definitions created by culture, agriculture and astronomy. According to NASA and astronomical institutions, June 20th marks the beginning of Summer in the Northern Hemisphere and the beginning of winter in the Southern Hemisphere in 2016.   

The official start and end of summer can vary by country - not because summer starts a week or so earlier in one country than another in the same hemisphere, but because the recognition of the start of summer is often influenced by historical or cultural reasons particular to that country.  Most countries recognize summer as starting on dates ranging in May and ending sometime in August. 

Although the June Solstice marks the beginning of Northern summer, it is often called Midsummer. In traditional Gaelic culture, the Summer Solstice represented the mid-point between the commencement of the Celtic Summer on May 1 and autumn on August 1.     

But I thought June, July and August were the Summer months?

They can be if your culture or country recognizes those months as summer.  In the U.S., those months have become associated with summer because school vacation (a.k.a Summer Break) has traditionally taken place during those months.   But the choice of those months were influenced by the agriculture harvest seasons to allow children to help on the family farm and not due to the official beginning and end of the summer season.

Why is there a lag time between the hottest days of Summer and the Solstice?  

Blame the oceans, which heat up and cool down only slowly.   By June 20 they are still cool from the winter time, and that delays the peak heat by about a month and a half.  Similarly, in December the water still holds warmth from the Summer, and the coldest days are still (on the average - not always) a month and a half ahead. 

The 2016 Summer Solstice marks the highest exposure of the northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans to the Sun's heating radiation.  The rise in ocean temperatures then provides the energy necessary to produce stronger hurricanes later in the year, usually around September.

Photo credit: Wikimedia / Andrew Dunn

Saturday, June 18, 2016

Scientists Discover Unusually Large Number Of Jupiters In Star Cluster

This artist’s impression shows a hot Jupiter planet orbiting close to one of the stars in the rich old star cluster Messier 67, in the constellation of Cancer (The Crab).

Astronomers have found that there are far more planets of the hot Jupiter-type than expected in a cluster of stars called Messier 67.

Scientists say that the denser environment in a cluster will cause more frequent interactions between planets and nearby stars, which may explain the excess of hot Jupiters.

A Chilean, Brazilian and European team led by Roberto Saglia at the Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, in Garching, Germany, and Luca Pasquini at the European Southern Observatory, has spent several years collecting high-precision measurements of 88 stars in Messier 67.


The team looked for the signatures of giant planets on short-period orbits, hoping to see the telltale "wobble" of a star caused by the presence of a massive object in a close orbit, a kind of planet known as hot Jupiters. This hot Jupiter signature has now been found for a total of three stars in the cluster alongside earlier evidence for several other planets.

A hot Jupiter is a giant exoplanet with a mass of more than about a third of Jupiter's mass. They are "hot" because they are orbiting close to their parent stars, as indicated by an orbital period (their "year") that is less than ten days in duration. That is very different from the Jupiter we are familiar within our own Solar System, which has a year lasting around 12 Earth- years and is much colder than the Earth.

"We want to use an open star cluster as a laboratory to explore the properties of exoplanets and theories of planet formation", explains Roberto Saglia. "Here we have not only many stars possibly hosting planets, but also a dense environment, in which they must have formed."

The study found that hot Jupiters are more common around stars in Messier 67 than is the case for stars outside clusters. "This is really a striking result," marvels Anna Brucalassi, who carried out the analysis. "The new results mean that there are hot Jupiters around some 5% of the Messier 67 stars studied -- far more than in comparable studies of stars not in clusters, where the rate is more like 1%."

Astronomers think it is highly unlikely that these exotic giants actually formed where we now find them, as conditions so close to the parent star would not initially have been suitable for the formation of Jupiter-like planets. Rather, it is thought that they formed further out, as Jupiter probably did, and then moved closer to the parent star. What were once distant, cold, giant planets are now a good deal hotter.

ABOVE IMAGE: Astronomers have found far more planets like this in the cluster than expected. This surprise result was obtained using a number of telescopes and instruments, among them the HARPS spectrograph at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile. The denser environment in a cluster will cause more frequent interactions between planets and nearby stars, which may explain the excess of hot Jupiters. CREDIT: ESO/L. CALÇADA

Friday, June 17, 2016

Scientists Detect Gravitational Waves For The Second Time

An artist's animation shows the merger and the gravitational waves that ripple outward. Credit: LIGO/T. Pyle

For the second time in less than a year, scientists have detected gravitational waves -- ripples in the fabric of spacetime --  from a second pair of colliding black holes, validating the first gravitational wave detection in September 2015 that proved Einstein's 1915 general theory of relativity.  

The second gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington on December. 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC.

According to general relativity, a pair of black holes orbiting around each other lose energy through the emission of gravitational waves, causing them to gradually approach each other over billions of years, and then much more quickly in the final minutes. During the final fraction of a second, the two black holes collide into each other at nearly one-half the speed of light and form a single more massive black hole, converting a portion of the combined black holes’ mass to energy, according to Einstein’s formula E=mc2. This energy is emitted as a final strong burst of gravitational waves. It is these gravitational waves that LIGO has observed on two separate occasions.


Gravitational waves carry information about the origins of black holes and about the nature of gravity that cannot otherwise be obtained. Physicists have concluded that these gravitational waves were produced during the final moments of the merger of two black holes -- 14 and 8 times the mass of the sun -- to produce a single, more massive spinning black hole 21 times the mass of the sun (In comparison, the black holes detected Sept. 14, 2015, were 36 and 29 times the sun's mass, merging into a black hole of 62 solar masses.)

This time, the gravitational waves released by the violent black hole merger resulted in a longer signal, or chirp, providing more data. The December chirp lasted one second; the September chirp lasted just one-fifth of a second. The higher-frequency gravitational waves from the lower-mass black holes better spread across the LIGO detectors' sweet spot of sensitivity.

"It is very significant that these black holes were much less massive than those in the first detection," said Gabriela Gonzalez, spokesperson of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and professor of physics and astronomy at Louisiana State University. 

Scientists now have a small population of black holes from which to learn more about the universe.

"Because of their lighter mass, they spent more time -- about one second -- in the sensitive band of the detectors. It is a promising start to mapping the populations of black holes in our universe," she said.

Gravitational waves are not sound waves, but researchers have converted the gravitational wave's oscillation and frequency to a sound wave with the same frequency, producing a "chirp" people can hear.

Scientists Find Most Distant Oxygen Ever Detected In The Universe

Artist’s impression of the distant galaxy SXDF-NB1006-2. Many young bright stars are located in the galaxy and ionise the gas inside and around the galaxy. Green color indicates the ionised oxygen detected by ALMA, whereas purple shows the distribution of ionised hydrogen detected by the Subaru Telescope. Credit: NAOJ

The most distant oxygen ever found in the universe was recently detected by scientists using  Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) telescope in Chile.

The cosmic oxygen was discovered in one of the most distant galaxies known, SXDF-NB1006-2, which lies at a redshift of 7.2, meaning that we see it on Earth only 700 million years after the Big Bang.

In the time before objects formed in the Universe, it was filled with electrically neutral gas. But when the first objects began to shine, a few hundred million years after the Big Bang, they emitted powerful radiation that started to break up those neutral atoms -- to ionise the gas. During this phase -- known as cosmic reionisation -- the whole Universe changed dramatically. But there is much debate about exactly what kind of objects caused the reionisation. Studying the conditions in very distant galaxies can help to answer this question.


Before observing the distant galaxy, the researchers performed computer simulations to predict how easily they could expect to see evidence of ionised oxygen with ALMA. They also considered observations of similar galaxies that are much closer to Earth, and concluded that the oxygen emission should be detectable, even at vast distance.

Scientists then carried out high-sensitivity observations with ALMA and found light from ionised oxygen in SXDF-NB1006-2, making this the most distant unambiguous detection of oxygen ever obtained. Researchers say that this is firm evidence for the presence of oxygen in the early Universe, only 700 million years after the Big Bang. The oxygen in SXDF-NB1006-2 was found to be ten times less abundant than it is in out Sun. 


This diagram depicts the major milestones in the evolution of the Universe since the Big Bang, about 13.8 billion years ago. It is not to scale. The Universe was in a neutral state at 400 thousand years after the Big Bang and remained that way until light from the first generation of stars started to ionise the hydrogen. After several hundred million years, the gas in the Universe was completely ionised. Credit: NAOJ


"The small abundance is expected because the Universe was still young and had a short history of star formation at that time," commented Naoki Yoshida at the University of Tokyo. "Our simulation actually predicted an abundance ten times smaller than the Sun. But we have another, unexpected, result: a very small amount of dust."

The team was unable to detect any emission from carbon in the galaxy, suggesting that this young galaxy contains very little un-ionised hydrogen gas, and also found that it contains only a small amount of dust, which is made up of heavy elements. "Something unusual may be happening in this galaxy," said Inoue. "I suspect that almost all the gas is highly ionised."

The detection of ionised oxygen indicates that many very brilliant stars, several dozen times more massive than our Sun, have formed in the galaxy and are emitting the intense ultraviolet light needed to ionise the oxygen atoms.

The lack of dust in the galaxy allows the intense ultraviolet light to escape and ionise vast amounts of gas outside the galaxy. "SXDF-NB1006-2 would be a prototype of the light sources responsible for the cosmic reionisation," said Inoue.

"This is an important step towards understanding what kind of objects caused cosmic reionisation," explained Yoichi Tamura of the University of Tokyo. "Our next observations with ALMA have already started. Higher resolution observations will allow us to see the distribution and motion of ionised oxygen in the galaxy and provide vital information to help us understand the properties of the galaxy."